In the Native CARS study, additional interviews were conducted utilizing focus groups to review the findings from the vehicle observations and elicitations interviews, to get feedback on mock-ups of the planned media materials, and to review and provide suggestions on drafted intervention plans.

Focus Groups

  • Included eight-to-ten people, three-to-four people per tribe
  • Reviewed preliminary observation results
  • Discussed themes from elicitation interviews
  • Provided feedback and adapted preliminary plans for media elements
  • Reviewed and expanded other intervention ideas


Native CARS conducted a total of three-to-four focus groups among each partner tribe.   Tribes held focus groups across multiple communities or districts within in the tribe, if the geography presented more than one distinct community.   In tribes that had only one main community, focus groups were divided by demographic groups such as parents, and other caregivers (grandparents, aunties, etc.).

Focus groups included both females and males, and participants spanned the age spectrum. The site coordinator from the tribe facilitated the selection and scheduling of the focus groups.  Focus groups were moderated by either the project director or the site coordinator, with the principal investigator taking notes. Additionally, interviews were recorded and transcribed.  The project director presented newly collected vehicle observation and elicitation interview findings, and asked for responses to them by participants. Then, the site coordinator presented proposed intervention plans and solicited input as to the acceptability and practicality of the plans   Lastly, participants reviewed the proposed media elements and provided feedback in terms of the message and delivery method.

Simple Analysis and Summary

Written comments recorded from focus groups were reviewed and immediately incorporated into intervention plans such as expanding or altering the scope of activities, including identified collaborators. Likewise, suggested edits to media were shared with the graphic artists, and revisions were made to media drafts to improve reflections of the community and more closely echo community voices and language recognition.

To get tips on conducting your own focus group, go to the next section.